TE24 Sci &Tech Desk:
After installing the outer detector in the water tank LZ member. (Image credit: Matthew Kopast, Stanford Underground Research Facility) LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) Dark Matter tests have passed the checkout phase and provided preliminary results.
LZ is a new particle detector that detects dark matter, a mysterious substance that makes up 85% of the mass of the universe, and has already mapped regions where physicists can detect dark matter. When astronomers estimated the mass of the galaxy, observing the stars visible in the galaxy could not explain the total mass or how the galaxy stays together and maintains its shape.
Dark matter is invisible or transparent because it does not emit, absorb or scatter light, but its presence is indicated by the effect of gravity. The LZ team consists of 250 scientists and engineers from 35 organizations in the United States, the United Kingdom, Portugal and South Korea.
Mysterious and elusive particles are believed to make up most of the universe. Physicist Bjorn Penning says: We see signs in space and see them orbiting stars and galaxies. Look at them in the primitive radiation of the Big Bang. Already in just four months, we have achieved the strongest results in the world and will continue to run this detector for another five years.
It declares very powerful and the ability to detect dark matter. Dark matter particles have not been discovered by physicists, but LZ has hope. Kevin Lesco, a former LZ spokesman, said: “This is a complex detector with many parts, everything works well and meets expectations. Its root
The detector consists of two nested titanium tanks that are maintained at -100 ° C filled with high-purity liquid xenon and two photomultiplier tubes are observed. It can detect weak light sources. The Titan tank is housed in a detector system designed to capture particles that mimic the signals of dark matter.
The detector is about a mile underground at a facility called the Sunford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota Reed. LZs are designed to detect weakly interacting giant particles or WIMPS. Rarely, WIMPS is expected to communicate with ordinary particles. LZ wants to catch it.
The underground location is designed to protect the detector from cosmic rays that can drown out the signals of dark matter. Photomultiplier tubes pick up the scintillation or flash caused by the collision of particles in the liquid xenon.
Physicist Vitaly Kudryavtsev says: Particles of dark matter are particularly difficult to detect because they do not emit or absorb light or other types of radiation. The goal of the LZ detector is to capture very weak interactions between dark matter particles and very rare particles between xenon atoms at a target of 7 tons of liquid xenon. To do this, the LZ needs to be calibrated correctly, the background noise has to be removed and the test has to be fully tuned so that these interactions can be observed. This first result is part of that exposure and legitimizes decades of design and construction efforts. Aaron Manalayase, a
The physicist who led the effort to create the first scientific results said: I understand. It’s impressive considering that we’ve already had such significant results during the COVID blockade, even though we launched it a few months ago. To detect dark matter particles, the detector must be very clean and free of other radiation and particles. Neutrons, dust, gaseous radon and background pollution detectors had to be removed during the assembly process for more than a year.
Physicist Alvin Kamaha says: I had to wear a special suit and follow a strict hygiene protocol. The dust we breathe also contains radioactive particles. These are not harmful to us, but can be used for dark matter detectors, such as ultra-sensitive LZs. “The detector weighed only 1 gram. Scientists do not know how dark matter interacts, which makes the search for dark matter more difficult.
Kamaha said, “I don’t know what dark matter looks like, but I know it doesn’t look like our accustomed particle, so we’re accustomed to interacting with the detector. You have to understand how a particle reacts to the detector, that is, what kind of signal is expected so you Can detect a new particle. The initial operation is to show that LZ is the cleanest and most sensitive WIMP detector in the world. it will most likely be using LZ.”
Physicist Chamkaur Ghag says: It is tedious, but it was necessary to ensure sufficient sensitivity beyond all previous efforts to find dark matter and provide an accurate background model. Make additional assessments found in the discovery data for this background model, which is the first indication. Strong experimental observations of dark matter.
Mike Headley, executive director of the SURF Institute, says: The site is due to limitations. LZ Detector Operations Manager Thomas Besiadjinski said: “I would like to express my second appreciation to the team at SURF, as well as to the large number of people who provided remote assistance during the construction, commissioning and operation of the LZ. They have worked full time from their home organization and are continuing to do so now. ” The detector is now moving towards full-time operation, with researchers optimistic that LZ will soon detect particles of a dark substance.
Preliminary results are a fraction of the exposure required to realize the full sensitivity of the LZ, which must now run continuously for up to 1,000 days. Henrik Araujo, co-head of LZ detector development, said: “A test of LZ’s scale and sensitivity could be forgivable: the slightest design flaw could compromise the entire enterprise. And since the LZ cryostat cannot be opened underground, we needed to make sure. We got it right the first time, a lot like we launch an LZ into space … well, it looks like we got it right. ”
Powell Majewski, LZ Calibration and Operations Manager, said: “It is gratifying to see the LZ experiment deliver its first scientific results. For Rutherford Appleton Laboratories, one of the founding members of LZ, it is a privilege to be part of this wonderful endeavor. Looking forward to more exciting results in anticipation of the discovery.
Researchers worked to make LZ work during the epidemic, and scientists were like everyone else among us. Hugh Lippincott, a spokesman for LZ, said: “There may have been a lot of zoom calls, but it’s great to see how well people can work together when crossing the ocean at the beginning and end of each day.
“It’s a groundbreaking study and we’re proud to be part of this groundbreaking international team in Sheffield. We’re trying to figure out what constitutes most of the space problem. As a scholar, it’s even more exciting,” said physicist Dan Tove. Not working We are looking forward to more exciting results and really looking forward to the big discoveries that await us in the years to come. “Using LZ, we’ve set a new world limit for sensitivity and entered a completely unknown region,” Ghag said.
Physicist Nathalie Planck-Delabroil says: The LZ team now has the most ambitious way to do it! “We are looking forward to more exciting results by analyzing the data that LZ will collect in the next few years,” said physicist Henning Fletcher. Repinkat says. “We’re just getting started because we plan to collect about 20 times more data in the next few years. There’s a lot to do and it’s very exciting.”